Funny you should ask that as I'm in the throes of preparing a course on Life Cycle Analysis.
- Questions ofwhich products or which solutions are greener than another can be really difficult to answer, and theanswers can be surprisingly subjective.
- To thoroughly determine the "winner" between bamboo flooringand FSC wood flooring (and note, by the way, that bamboo can be FSC certified!) would require the kindof study - an LCA -- that can make one's eyes glaze over.
- Who has the time or attention span for that?
Factors to consider
So we'll skip the snooze-inducing complete life cycle analysis and focus on a few specific points.
One ofthe first questions is what your criteria for "better" are?
- Is it in terms of health for your family?
- Healthof the planet?
- Social responsibility?
The answer in most cases is all of the above, withvarying degrees of emphasis. Your priorities may lead you to different decisions. It's likely that the bestwoods for indoor air quality are not the same as for climate change or for wear.
The glue in bamboo
Since you asked about glue, let's start there. Yes, bamboo flooring, which is composed of stripsof bamboo adhered together, requires glue. Until fairly recently, all bamboo flooring used urea-formaldehyde based glue. Nasty stuff, that.
But there are now several manufacturers using alternative
adhesives without the offgassing issues. Perhaps that's the "eco glue" you mention.
Other eco aspects of bamboo
Bamboo has become a material du jour because it grows so rapidly. (Some grow several inches a day.)However, that's only one of the environmental aspects to be considered.
- Critics of bamboo note thatit has to be shipped a long way, contributing to global warming, and that because of the high demandfor it these days, it may not be grown sustainably.
- In some regions, natural forests with rich, complexecosystems are being cleared to make bamboo monoculture plantations.
For these reasons, many ecodesigners prefer locally grown native woods that are sustainably harvested.Properly certifying sustainability can add expense, though, often increasing the cost of FSC woods.
Another factor you raise is hardness: how well will the flooring survive the onslaught of your twins (orguests' high heels)?
Bamboo has a mixed reputation for hardness, varying by:
- age of the stalks (oldergrowth, 5 to 7 years, is better),
- how the flooring is made (darker, carbonized bamboo is generally softerthan the lighter natural color, and stranded bamboo is significantly harder than both) and from
- onemanufacturer to another.
In a recent project, we chose bamboo flooring that scored well on the Jankahardness scale, but we are nonetheless having issues with scratches and dings.
Wood flooring varies in hardness as well. Which leads us to a third alternative: reclaimed wood.
- Newwood is more often from young growth trees and, hence, softer.
- Old growth wood is increasinglyharder to get, and the old growth forests that remain need to be protected.
- But we have a source ofstrong and beautiful old growth woods in buildings that are being deconstructed.
This is often the mostenvironmentally preferred choice, especially if the wood is locally sourced.
Whatever flooring you choose, familiarize yourself with the finishing options, particularly if you arehaving the finishing done in place and if indoor air quality or chemical sensitivity is an issue.
You'realmost certainly going to want to use a low- or non-VOC finish. And the whitewashing you mention mayalso be a factor. For one thing, I don't know if you can whitewash bamboo.
"Real" wood floors (bamboobeing technically a grass, not a tree) can be lightened, but whitewashing, pickling or bleaching mayinvolve some less-than-eco chemicals.
My thinking: if it is available and affordable (and you like the look), reclaimed flooring is the way to go.
My second choice would be domestically harvested FSC wood.
Or perhaps a good quality cork, whichmight help keep the din of the twins under control.
For more information:
Read "Can you recommend healthy flooring for a home with kids and pets?" a Q&A answered by Mari Strain.